Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2020, Page: 5-16
Versatile Regulator or Integrator RNA-binding Protein TLS/FUS Works for Phase Separation on Regulation of the Human Genome - In Relation to Liposarcoma and ALS
Riki Kurokawa, Division of Gene Structure and Function, Research Center for Genomic Medicine (RCGM), Saitama Medical University, Hidaka, Japan
Received: Jan. 21, 2020;       Accepted: Feb. 7, 2020;       Published: Feb. 18, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.bs.20200601.12      View  185      Downloads  71
Abstract
This review article aims at comprehensive understanding of biological functions of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and cognate RNAs. For showing the divergent and dispersed aspects of RBP functions of the human genome in living cells, RBP TLS/FUS is chosen for these topics. Recent discovery of TLS as a phase transition or phase separation inducer presents previously unprecedented models regarding phase separation and enhancer functions in the genome. Trends in research altered up to interests or desire of scientists. Research activities of TLS/FUS have been dramatically drifted across over the last century. TLS was identified as a fusion gene product of TLS-CHOP of liposarcoma in 1993. Before announcement of the human genome draft, there were compelling desires to hunt novel genes. Gene cloning from libraries was one of prevalent activities at that time. Next wave came with describing TLS as a causative gene for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Investigation of lethal neurodegenerative disease, ALS has social impact. Elucidation of onset of ALS has progressed rapidly. Latest discovery with TLS is its solute for phase separation and phase transition into aggregation. The phase separation and resultant aggregation are pointed out in relation to the onset of ALS. Then, people rush to search for tide of TLS to phase separation in link to cause for ALS. Analysis of the phase separation could provide a novel outline for long distant regulation of gene in the genome. In this review article, the author focuses emerging trendy targets of a versatile molecule TLS and discuss scientific needs behind these orientation for a specific molecule in biological sciences.
Keywords
RNA-binding Proteins, TLS/FUS, Liposarcoma, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Phase Separation, Phase Transition, Intrinsically Disordered region, Low Complexity Domain, Nuclear Condensate
To cite this article
Riki Kurokawa, Versatile Regulator or Integrator RNA-binding Protein TLS/FUS Works for Phase Separation on Regulation of the Human Genome - In Relation to Liposarcoma and ALS, Biomedical Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2020, pp. 5-16. doi: 10.11648/j.bs.20200601.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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